Highly Accessed Open Badges Correspondence

Systems medicine and integrated care to combat chronic noncommunicable diseases

Jean Bousquet1*, Josep M Anto2, Peter J Sterk3, Ian M Adcock4, Kian Fan Chung5, Josep Roca6, Alvar Agusti6, Chris Brightling7, Anne Cambon-Thomsen8, Alfredo Cesario9, Sonia Abdelhak10, Stylianos E Antonarakis11, Antoine Avignon12, Andrea Ballabio13, Eugenio Baraldi14, Alexander Baranov15, Thomas Bieber16, Joël Bockaert17, Samir Brahmachari18, Christian Brambilla19, Jacques Bringer20, Michel Dauzat21, Ingemar Ernberg22, Leonardo Fabbri23, Philippe Froguel24, David Galas25, Takashi Gojobori26, Peter Hunter27, Christian Jorgensen28, Francine Kauffmann29, Philippe Kourilsky30, Marek L Kowalski31, Doron Lancet32, Claude Le Pen33, Jacques Mallet34, Bongani Mayosi35, Jacques Mercier36, Andres Metspalu37, Joseph H Nadeau25, Grégory Ninot38, Denis Noble39, Mehmet Öztürk40, Susanna Palkonen41, Christian Préfaut36, Klaus Rabe42, Eric Renard20, Richard G Roberts43, Boleslav Samolinski44, Holger J Schünemann45, Hans-Uwe Simon46, Marcelo Bento Soares47, Giulio Superti-Furga48, Jesper Tegner49, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida50, Peter Wellstead51, Olaf Wolkenhauer52, Emiel Wouters53, Rudi Balling54, Anthony J Brookes55, Dominique Charron56, Christophe Pison5758, Zhu Chen59, Leroy Hood25 and Charles Auffray5657586061

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Respiratory Diseases, Arnaud de Villeneuve Hospital, CHU Montpellier, INSERM CESP U1018, Villejuif, France

2 Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Epidemiologıa y Salud Publica, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Doctor Aiguader, 88, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain

3 Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands

4 Cellular and Molecular Biology, Imperial College, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK

5 National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK

6 Institut Clínic del Tòrax, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, CIBERES, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain

7 Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Sciences Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 9HN, UK

8 Epidemiology, Public Health, Risks, Chronic Diseases and Handicap, INSERM U558, Toulouse, France

9 IRCCS San Raffaele, Via della Pisana, 235, Rome, Italy

10 Institut Pasteur, Bab Bhar, Avenue Jugurtha, Tunis, 71 843 755, Tunisia

11 Division of Medical Genetics, University of Geneva Medical School, 1 rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland

12 Department of Diabetology, Montpellier, France

13 Telethon Institute of Genomics and Medicine, Via Pietro Castellino, 111 80131 - Napoli, Italy

14 Department of Pediatrics, University of Padova, Padova, Giustiniani, 3 - 35128, Italy

15 Scientific Centre of Children's Health, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Lomonosovskiy prospect, 2/62, 117963, Moscow, Russia

16 Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn, Germany

17 Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, CNRS, UMR 5203, INSERM, U661, Université Montpellier 1 and 2, Montpellier, France

18 Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Near Jubilee Hall, Mall Road, Delhi-110 007, New Delhi, India

19 Pulmonary Division, Albert Michallon University Hospital, Albert Bonniot Cancer Research Institute, La Tronche, Grenoble, France

20 Endocrine Diseases, Lapeyronie Hospital, Montpellier, France

21 Department of Physiology, Nîmes University Hospital, Place du Professeur Robert Debré 30029 Nîmes Cedex 9, France

22 Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Nobels väg 16, KI Solna Campus, Box 280, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden

23 Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Regio Emilia, Modena, Italy

24 Imperial College London, London, UK

25 Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, 401 Terry Avenue, North Seattle, WA 98109-5234, USA

26 National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan

27 Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street Auckland, 1010. New Zealand

28 Clinical Unit for Osteoarticular Diseases, and INSERM U844, Montpellier, France

29 Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM U1018, Villejuif, France

30 Singapore Immunology Network, 8A Biomedical Grove, Level 4 Immunos Building, 138648 Singapore

31 Medical University of Lodz, Poland

32 Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26 Rehovot 76100, Israel

33 Health Economy and Management, Paris-Dauphine University, Paris, France

34 Biotechnology and Biotherapy, IRCM, Paris, France

35 Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, South Africa

36 Department of Physiology, Montpellier University, and INSERM U1046, France

37 The Estonian Genome Center of University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

38 Epsylon, Montpellier, France

39 Department of Physiology, University of Oxford, Le Gros Clark Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK

40 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bilkent University, Faculty of Science, B Building, 06800 Ankara, Turkey

41 European Patient's Forum (EPF) and European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), Brussels, Belgium

42 Department of Medicine, University of Kiel, Germany

43 Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 1100 Delaplaine Ct.Madison, WI 53715-1896, USA

44 Department of Public Health, AL. JEROZOLIMSKIE 87, 02-001 Warsaw, Poland

45 Departments of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics and of Medicine, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Rm. 2C12, L8S 4K1 Hamilton, ON, Canada

46 Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Friedbühlstrasse 49, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland

47 Cancer Biology and Epigenomics Program, Children's Memorial Research Center and Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, USA

48 Research Centre for Molecular Medicine, Lazarettgasse 14, AKH BT 25.3, A-1090, Vienna, Austria

49 Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Solna, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden

50 Institute of Chemistry, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

51 The Hamilton Institute, Maynooth, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland

52 Department of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany

53 Faculty of Medicine, University of Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands

54 Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Campus Limpertsberg, 162a, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511, Luxembourg

55 Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Adrian Building, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK

56 European Institute for Systems Biology and Medicine, HLA and Medicine, Jean Dausset Laboratory, St Louis Hospital, INSERM U940, Paris, France

57 European Institute for Systems Biology and Medicine, Pulmonary Division, Albert Michallon University Hospital, La Tronche, France

58 Fundamental and Applied Bioenergetics, INSERM U1055, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France

59 Centre for Systems Biomedicine, Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai, China

60 European Institute for Systems Biology and Medicine, Claude Bernard University, Lyon, France

61 Functional Genomics and Systems Biology for Health, CNRS Institute of Biological Sciences,Villejuif, France

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Genome Medicine 2011, 3:43  doi:10.1186/gm259

Published: 6 July 2011


We propose an innovative, integrated, cost-effective health system to combat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular, chronic respiratory, metabolic, rheumatologic and neurologic disorders and cancers, which together are the predominant health problem of the 21st century. This proposed holistic strategy involves comprehensive patient-centered integrated care and multi-scale, multi-modal and multi-level systems approaches to tackle NCDs as a common group of diseases. Rather than studying each disease individually, it will take into account their intertwined gene-environment, socio-economic interactions and co-morbidities that lead to individual-specific complex phenotypes. It will implement a road map for predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory (P4) medicine based on a robust and extensive knowledge management infrastructure that contains individual patient information. It will be supported by strategic partnerships involving all stakeholders, including general practitioners associated with patient-centered care. This systems medicine strategy, which will take a holistic approach to disease, is designed to allow the results to be used globally, taking into account the needs and specificities of local economies and health systems.